India

The textile and garment industry plays an important role in India’s economic growth, contributing 4% to the country’s GDP and employing about 45 million workers.

Labour conditions are characterised by high production pressure resulting in excessive, often unpaid overtime. In addition, a lack of legal employment relationships and informal employment is common; especially for seasonal and migrant workers. Unionisation in the garment sector remains low, at less than 5%; largely due to management practices that discourage workers from joining trade unions. Functioning grievance channels are lacking.

Sexual harassment of female workers remains a major challenge and generally goes unreported. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act stipulates that women should not be subjected to sexual harassment in the workplace and prescribes the creation of Internal Complaints Committees (ICC). However, most garment factories do not have (functioning) ICCs in place. Since 2013, FWF provides training through its Workplace Education Programme (WEP) focusing on the prevention of gender-based violence and the establishment of ICCs.

In addition, with the support of the EU delegation in India, FWF is currently piloting a training programme in Bangalore and Tirupur. The programme aims to further reduce economic discrimination against women in garment factories by providing training focused on improving the working relations between line supervisors and workers and supporting female workers with skills to become supervisors.

FWF has published a policy to offer guidance to its members to mitigate risks related to Sumangali-like schemes, an illegal forced labour practice observed in South India.

Minimum wages vary per state, sector and category of workers. Taking the tailoring industry as an example, daily minimum wages in Bangalore, Tirupur and Gurgaon range from 263 to 391 INR (EUR 3.4 to 5.3). Such wages provide only minimal standards of living and do not meet the monthly living wage, which amounts to a daily wage of 720 INR (EUR 9.7), according to the Asia Floor Wage. FWF audits found that minimum wages are commonly provided to permanent workers, while documents regarding contract workers are often not available for verification. In addition, overtime is commonly paid at single rate or not paid at all.

FWF has been active in India since 2003. Forty FWF members—mostly those in fashion and sportswear—source from more than 160 factories. Of these factories, 45% are located in north India, while 55% are based in south India. Significant clusters for factories supplying FWF members include Tamil Nadu (mainly Tirupur) as well as Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) area.

In India, FWF works with a number of local partners (currently SAVE, Cividep and MARG), a country representative, as well as three local audit teams. Complaint hotlines are operated in five languages; Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, Bangla and English.

Fair Wear Foundation and its partners FNV Mondiaal and CNV Internationaal have been selected by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs for a five year Strategic partnership starting in 2016 as part of its “Dialogue and Dissent” policy framework. The primary goal of this initiative is to improve the lobbying and advocacy capacity of trade unions and labour related NGOs by enhancing their understanding of international RMG supply chains, access to critical information and know-how. This programme further defines FWF’s activities in India for the coming 5 years, focusing on the areas of Living Wages, Social Dialogue and Gender Based Violence in the textile industry.

For questions about FWF’s work in India, please contact Lisa Süss.

Indicators

  • FWF active since: 2003
  • Complaints handler: yes
  • Audit teams: 3
  • FWF affiliates sourcing: 41
  • Number of suppliers: 160
  • Human development rank: 130
  • Minimum wage: 2990 INR = 48,6 US$
  • GDP per capita/year (PPP US$): 5,050
  • Income equality value (Gini): 33,6
  • Population below $1.25/day: 32,7
  • Global gender gap index: 108
  • Child labour (5-14 years): 12%
  • Trade union situation

Complaints handling in India

FWF considers a growth in complaints to be a good sign. This means that workers are becoming more aware of their rights and are more comfortable coming forward with grievances about their working conditions and the way Fair Wear Foundation's Code of Labour Practices is implemented in these factories. View all complaints in India.

Complaint statistics since 2012

FWF has received 68 complaints about workplace violations
Together with brands and factories we have resolved and closed 42 complaints
Most complaints concerned Legally binding employment relationship
Complaints received per year

FWF encourages workers to use internal grievance systems, and sees the complaints system as a last-resort measure.

Most complaints are about these labour standards:

Complaints may involve more than one labour standard.

a legal contract 49 a living wage 43 Reasonable hours of work 33
FWF has received 68 complaints about workplace violations
Together with brands and factories we have resolved and closed 42 complaints
Most complaints concerned Legally binding employment relationship
Complaints received per year

FWF encourages workers to use internal grievance systems, and sees the complaints system as a last-resort measure.

Most complaints are about these labour standards:

Complaints may involve more than one labour standard.

a legal contract 49
Most complaints are about these labour standards:

Complaints may involve more than one labour standard.

a living wage 43
Most complaints are about these labour standards:

Complaints may involve more than one labour standard.

Reasonable hours of work 33

Latest complaints

Van Lier Shoes B.V., Complaint 330

The complainant has reached retirement age and wants to retire with all benefits, but w… read more

Continental Clothing Company Ltd, Nudie Jeans Co., Epona Ltd, Complaint 293

The complainant stated that he/she has not received his/her annual bonus which was due … read more

Mini Rodini AB, Complaint 347

The complainant has been employed as a tailor in this factory for a year and three mont… read more

View all complaints in India

Resources

Resources related to India

India Country Study 2016

India is, together with Bangladesh, China and Turkey, one of FWF’s date: 26/09/2016Read more

India Country Plan 2015

Country plan 2015 date: 21/12/2011Read more

FWF Guidance for Members on Sumangali 2015

FWF Guidance for Members on Sumangali 2015 The Sumangali Scheme, a date: 21/12/2011Read more

India Complaint Nudie Jeans August 2016

Intermediate report of complaint in India at a factory supplying Nud date: 17/11/2016Read more

India complaint DW-Shop July 2016

Final report of a complaint at a factory in India supplying DW-Shop date: 14/03/2017Read more

India complaint Nudie Jeans Oct. 2016

FINAL REPORT OF COMPLAINT AT A FACTORY IN India SUPPLYING Nudie jea date: 14/03/2017Read more

India Complaint Nudie Jeans, Mini Rodini, Manroof and Continental April 2016

Final report of complaint in India at a factory supplying Nudie Jean date: 11/05/2016Read more

India Complaint Nudie Jeans, Manroof, Continental Clothing, Epona Feb. 2017

Final report of a complaint at a factory in India supplying Nudie J date: 26/04/2017Read more

India Complaint Takko August 2016

Final report of complaint at a factory in India supplying Takko On date: 17/11/2016Read more

India Complaint Takko December 2016

Final report of a complaint at a factory in India supplying Takko O date: 27/03/2017Read more

India Complaint Takko Jan. 2017 Interim report

Interim report of a complaint at a factory in India supplying Takko date: 14/06/2017Read more

India Complaint Takko May 2016

Final report of complaint in India at factory supplying Takko On 28 date: 17/11/2016Read more

India Complaint Takko October 2016

Final report of a complaint at a factory in India supplying Takko O date: 27/03/2017Read more

Members in India

Projects

Projects in India

Workplace Education Programme

FWF members look for more than participating in auditing. FWF’s Workplace Education Programme (WEP) provides short, targeted onsite training for managers, supervisors and workers. The training aims to raise awareness about the various labour standards and effective methods for communicating about problems and resolving disputes. Managers, supervisors and workers also learn about FWF’s complaints mechanism.

Go to WEP

Share this on

FacebookTwitterLinkedInWhatsAppEmailCopy link

FWF around the world

Most of FWF's work is focused on four priority countries: Bangladesh, China, India and Turkey. Around 80% of FWF member production comes from these four countries.

FWF is active in country

FWF member brand sources in country

Complaints in country

FWF projects in country

Data is obtained from Brand Performance Checks and may not reflect the most current situation

Albania

more

Fair Wear is not active in Albania

7 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Albania

Armenia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Armenia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Armenia

Austria

more

Fair Wear is not active in Austria

7 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Austria

Bahrain

more

Fair Wear is not active in Bahrain

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Bahrain

4 complaints

Bangladesh

The Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in Bangladesh has experienced... more

Fair Wear is active in Bangladesh

225 factories work with FWF members

18 FWF members source in Bangladesh

41 complaints

1 FWF projects

Belarus

more

Fair Wear is not active in Belarus

1 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Belarus

Belgium

more

Fair Wear is not active in Belgium

5 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Belgium

Bolivia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Bolivia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

more

Fair Wear is not active in Bosnia and Herzegovina

9 factories work with FWF members

8 FWF members source in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

The predominant part of the apparel producing companies in Bulgaria... more

Fair Wear is active in Bulgaria

45 factories work with FWF members

17 FWF members source in Bulgaria

1 complaint

1 FWF projects

Cambodia

Although FWF is not currently active in Cambodia, one of FWF's stra... more

Fair Wear is not active in Cambodia

11 factories work with FWF members

8 FWF members source in Cambodia

China

China is, still, the largest exporter of garment products. 2014 wit... more

Fair Wear is active in China

826 factories work with FWF members

62 FWF members source in China

63 complaints

2 FWF projects

Croatia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Croatia

6 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Croatia

Czech Republic

more

Fair Wear is not active in Czech Republic

12 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Czech Republic

Egypt

more

Fair Wear is not active in Egypt

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Egypt

Estonia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Estonia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Estonia

Ethiopia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Ethiopia

1 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Ethiopia

France

more

Fair Wear is not active in France

31 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in France

1 complaint

Georgia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Georgia

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Georgia

Germany

more

Fair Wear is not active in Germany

57 factories work with FWF members

23 FWF members source in Germany

Greece

more

Fair Wear is not active in Greece

2 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Greece

Honduras

more

Fair Wear is not active in Honduras

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Honduras

Hong Kong

more

Fair Wear is not active in Hong Kong

6 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Hong Kong

Hungary

more

Fair Wear is not active in Hungary

23 factories work with FWF members

14 FWF members source in Hungary

India

The textile and garment industry plays an important role in India... more

Fair Wear is active in India

238 factories work with FWF members

41 FWF members source in India

68 complaints

1 FWF projects

Indonesia

Indonesia’s manufacturing sector generates around a fifth of the ... more

Fair Wear is active in Indonesia

30 factories work with FWF members

12 FWF members source in Indonesia

10 complaints

1 FWF projects

Israel

more

Fair Wear is not active in Israel

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Israel

Italy

ITALY While considered a low risk country, in the past few years w... more

Fair Wear is not active in Italy

172 factories work with FWF members

25 FWF members source in Italy

2 complaints

Jordan

more

Fair Wear is not active in Jordan

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Jordan

Lao People´s Democratic Republic

more

Fair Wear is not active in Lao People´s Democratic Republic

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Lao People´s Democratic Republic

Latvia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Latvia

13 factories work with FWF members

7 FWF members source in Latvia

Lithuania

more

Fair Wear is not active in Lithuania

50 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Lithuania

Macedonia

FWF began working in Macedonia in 2003. The garment industry is a v... more

Fair Wear is active in Macedonia

36 factories work with FWF members

13 FWF members source in Macedonia

3 complaints

1 FWF projects

Madagascar

more

Fair Wear is not active in Madagascar

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Madagascar

Malaysia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Malaysia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Malaysia

Mauritius

more

Fair Wear is not active in Mauritius

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Mauritius

Moldova

more

Fair Wear is not active in Moldova

8 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Moldova

Mongolia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Mongolia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Mongolia

Morocco

more

Fair Wear is not active in Morocco

10 factories work with FWF members

8 FWF members source in Morocco

2 complaints

Myanmar

While Myanmar has demonstrated significant progress on civil and po... more

Fair Wear is active in Myanmar

17 factories work with FWF members

10 FWF members source in Myanmar

33 complaints

1 FWF projects

Nepal

more

Fair Wear is not active in Nepal

3 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Nepal

Netherlands

more

Fair Wear is not active in Netherlands

6 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Netherlands

4 complaints

New Zealand

more

Fair Wear is not active in New Zealand

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in New Zealand

Pakistan

FWF is not active in Pakistan. However, one of FWF's strategic part... more

Fair Wear is not active in Pakistan

32 factories work with FWF members

12 FWF members source in Pakistan

1 complaint

Peru

more

Fair Wear is not active in Peru

8 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Peru

Philippines

more

Fair Wear is not active in Philippines

3 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Philippines

Poland

Poland falls under FWF’s low-risk policy. This means that members... more

Fair Wear is not active in Poland

45 factories work with FWF members

24 FWF members source in Poland

Portugal

Portugal falls under FWF’s low-risk policy. This means that membe... more

Fair Wear is not active in Portugal

136 factories work with FWF members

35 FWF members source in Portugal

Republic of Korea

more

Fair Wear is not active in Republic of Korea

4 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Republic of Korea

Romania

The textile and garment industry is one of the most important secto... more

Fair Wear is active in Romania

57 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Romania

4 complaints

1 FWF projects

Russian Federation

more

Fair Wear is not active in Russian Federation

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Russian Federation

Serbia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Serbia

4 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Serbia

Slovakia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Slovakia

18 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Slovakia

Slovenia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Slovenia

5 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Slovenia

Spain

more

Fair Wear is not active in Spain

5 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Spain

Sri Lanka

more

Fair Wear is not active in Sri Lanka

9 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Sri Lanka

Sweden

more

Fair Wear is not active in Sweden

3 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Sweden

Switzerland

more

Fair Wear is not active in Switzerland

7 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Switzerland

Taiwan

more

Fair Wear is not active in Taiwan

7 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Taiwan

Thailand

more

Fair Wear is not active in Thailand

9 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Thailand

1 complaint

Tunisia

Tunisia is among the world’s leading suppliers of clothing, an in... more

Fair Wear is active in Tunisia

64 factories work with FWF members

18 FWF members source in Tunisia

13 complaints

1 FWF projects

Turkey

Turkey is the fifth biggest supplier country for FWF members. Produ... more

Fair Wear is active in Turkey

217 factories work with FWF members

44 FWF members source in Turkey

43 complaints

1 FWF projects

Ukraine

more

Fair Wear is not active in Ukraine

10 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Ukraine

1 complaint

United Arab Emirates

more

Fair Wear is not active in United Arab Emirates

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

more

Fair Wear is not active in United Kingdom

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in United Kingdom

United States

more

Fair Wear is not active in United States

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in United States

Vietnam

In 2017 Fair Wear Foundation had 29 member companies sourcing from ... more

Fair Wear is active in Vietnam

155 factories work with FWF members

29 FWF members source in Vietnam

20 complaints

1 FWF projects

Zimbabwe

more

Fair Wear is not active in Zimbabwe

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Zimbabwe