Romania

The textile and garment industry is one of the most important sectors of Romanian industry and one of the main employers in Romania, with women being the majority of workers.

Because Romania has been a member of the European Union (EU) since 2007, the country’s labour legislation meets all EU laws and labour standards. The country has also ratified all International Labour Organisation (ILO) conventions referred to in Fair Wear Foundation’s Code of Labour Practices except for Conventions 26 and 155.

In 2012 Romania made major changes to the Labour Code to overcome the economic and financial instability caused by the economic crisis in 2008. The biggest impact of the new legislation was the weakened situation of trade unions in the country.

In recent years, Romania has made significant steps towards reducing macroeconomic imbalances, resulting in increasing macroeconomic and financial stability. At the international level, textiles production has shifted from Asia to Eastern European countries, including Romania, since the beginning of 2014. This shift is based on several factors, but the most significant are the continuing escalation of prices in Asia and the uncertain political situation in Egypt and Syria, which push western buyers to countries like Romania.

FWF has been carrying out factory audits in Romania since 2006. The outcomes of these audits show the general areas of concern. The major issues of concern are low wages; trade union representation; and, to some extent, occupational health and safety issues.

Average wages in Romania vary between rural and urban environments. In the North and the East of the country, salaries are lower than in the West, and in the capital.

After the changes in the Labour Code, social dialogue and collective bargaining power in the garment industry became less effective. Even though trade unions worked together to gain members during economic downturn, most factories still lack active worker representation. Often, the worker representatives are not democratically elected by workers and the functioning of worker representatives is affected by low interest and awareness of factory management on the functioning of worker representation.

Among the most common problems related to occupational health and safety are related to building and fire safety. The core issue of concern is insufficient knowledge, awareness and responsibility from business owners, managers and staff about how to provide a safe working environment. Often, risk assessments are carried out by external parties that do not have enough knowledge of the specific risks faced in the garment industry, so they are incomplete or inaccurate.

FWF started to implement the FWF Workplace Education Programme (WEP) in Romania to offer factory trainings on local labour laws and support effective communication between factory management and workers. The priorities for FWF in Romania are wages and social dialogue.

In 2015, 25 FWF members sourced from around 45 factories in Romania.

For questions about FWF’s work in Romania, please contact Rosan van Wolveren.

Indicators

  1. FWF active since: 2006
  2. Complaints handler: yes
  3. Audit teams: 1
  4. FWF members sourcing: 25
  5. Number of suppliers: 55
  6. Human development rank: 50 in 2015
  7. Minimum wage: 1450 Lei (gross) = 344 US$ in 2017
  8. GDP per capita per year (PPP$): 21,610  (PPP $ in 2015)
  9. Income equality value (Gini): 32 in 2016 (based on the Report of the Global Economic Forum)
  10. Population below 1,25$/day: --
  11. Rule of law: 66%  (Rank 32 of 113 countries, according to the Rule of Law Index)
  12. Global Gender Gap Index: 76 in 2016
  13. Child labour (5-14 years): 1%
  14. Trade union situation

Complaints handling in Romania

The complaints procedure allows workers or their representatives in garment factories which supply members of Fair Wear Foundation to make complaints about their working conditions and the way Fair Wear Foundation's Code of Labour Practices is implemented in these factories.

Statistics

FWF has received 4 complaints about workplace violations
Together with brands and factories we have resolved and closed 4 complaints
Most complaints concerned Living wage
Complaints received per year

FWF encourages workers to use internal grievance systems, and sees the complaints system as a last-resort measure.

FWF has received 4 complaints about workplace violations
Together with brands and factories we have resolved and closed 4 complaints
Most complaints concerned Living wage
Complaints received per year

FWF encourages workers to use internal grievance systems, and sees the complaints system as a last-resort measure.

Most complaints are about
a living wage 3
Most complaints are about
Safe conditions 3
Most complaints are about
Reasonable hours of work 1

Resources

Resources related to Romania

Romania Country Study 2016

The Romanian economy suffered the blow of the 2008 economic crisis, date: 21/11/2016Read more

Romania Complaint Gerhard Roesch May 2015

INITIAL REPORT COMPLAINT IN Romania AT FACTORY SUPPLYING Gerard RO date: 28/03/2014Read more

Members in Romania

Projects

Projects in Romania

Romania

The textile and garment industry is one of the most important sectors of Romanian industry and one of the main employers in Romania, with women being the majority of workers.

Because Romania has been a member of the European Union (EU) since 2007, the country’s labour legislation meets all EU laws and labour standards. The country has also ratified all International Labour Organisation (ILO) conventions referred to in Fair Wear Foundation’s Code of Labour Practices except for Conventions 26 and 155.

In 2012 Romania made major changes to the Labour Code to overcome the economic and financial instability caused by the economic crisis in 2008. The biggest impact of the new legislation was the weakened situation of trade unions in the country.

In recent years, Romania has made significant steps towards reducing macroeconomic imbalances, resulting in increasing macroeconomic and financial stability. At the international level, textiles production has shifted from Asia to Eastern European countries, including Romania, since the beginning of 2014. This shift is based on several factors, but the most significant are the continuing escalation of prices in Asia and the uncertain political situation in Egypt and Syria, which push western buyers to countries like Romania.

FWF has been carrying out factory audits in Romania since 2006. The outcomes of these audits show the general areas of concern. The major issues of concern are low wages; trade union representation; and, to some extent, occupational health and safety issues.

Average wages in Romania vary between rural and urban environments. In the North and the East of the country, salaries are lower than in the West, and in the capital.

After the changes in the Labour Code, social dialogue and collective bargaining power in the garment industry became less effective. Even though trade unions worked together to gain members during economic downturn, most factories still lack active worker representation. Often, the worker representatives are not democratically elected by workers and the functioning of worker representatives is affected by low interest and awareness of factory management on the functioning of worker representation.

Among the most common problems related to occupational health and safety are related to building and fire safety. The core issue of concern is insufficient knowledge, awareness and responsibility from business owners, managers and staff about how to provide a safe working environment. Often, risk assessments are carried out by external parties that do not have enough knowledge of the specific risks faced in the garment industry, so they are incomplete or inaccurate.

FWF started to implement the FWF Workplace Education Programme (WEP) in Romania to offer factory trainings on local labour laws and support effective communication between factory management and workers. The priorities for FWF in Romania are wages and social dialogue.

In 2015, 25 FWF members sourced from around 45 factories in Romania.

For questions about FWF’s work in Romania, please contact Rosan van Wolveren.

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FWF around the world

Most of FWF's work is focused on four priority countries: Bangladesh, China, India and Turkey. Around 80% of FWF member production comes from these four countries.

FWF is active in country

FWF member brand sources in country

Complaints in country

FWF projects in country

Data is obtained from Brand Performance Checks and may not reflect the most current situation

Albania

more

Fair Wear is not active in Albania

6 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Albania

Armenia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Armenia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Armenia

Austria

more

Fair Wear is not active in Austria

7 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Austria

Bahrain

more

Fair Wear is not active in Bahrain

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Bahrain

4 complaints

Bangladesh

The Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in Bangladesh has experienced... more

Fair Wear is active in Bangladesh

221 factories work with FWF members

17 FWF members source in Bangladesh

32 complaints

1 FWF projects

Belarus

more

Fair Wear is not active in Belarus

1 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Belarus

Belgium

more

Fair Wear is not active in Belgium

5 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Belgium

Bolivia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Bolivia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

more

Fair Wear is not active in Bosnia and Herzegovina

9 factories work with FWF members

8 FWF members source in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

The predominant part of the apparel producing companies in Bulgaria... more

Fair Wear is active in Bulgaria

36 factories work with FWF members

16 FWF members source in Bulgaria

1 complaint

1 FWF projects

Cambodia

Although FWF is not currently active in Cambodia, one of FWF's stra... more

Fair Wear is not active in Cambodia

10 factories work with FWF members

7 FWF members source in Cambodia

China

China is, still, the largest exporter of garment products. 2014 wit... more

Fair Wear is active in China

812 factories work with FWF members

60 FWF members source in China

57 complaints

2 FWF projects

Croatia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Croatia

5 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Croatia

Czech Republic

more

Fair Wear is not active in Czech Republic

11 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Czech Republic

Egypt

more

Fair Wear is not active in Egypt

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Egypt

Estonia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Estonia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Estonia

Ethiopia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Ethiopia

1 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Ethiopia

France

more

Fair Wear is not active in France

31 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in France

4 complaints

Georgia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Georgia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Georgia

Germany

more

Fair Wear is not active in Germany

59 factories work with FWF members

22 FWF members source in Germany

Greece

more

Fair Wear is not active in Greece

2 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Greece

Honduras

more

Fair Wear is not active in Honduras

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Honduras

Hong Kong

more

Fair Wear is not active in Hong Kong

6 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Hong Kong

Hungary

more

Fair Wear is not active in Hungary

22 factories work with FWF members

14 FWF members source in Hungary

India

The textile and garment industry plays an important role in India... more

Fair Wear is active in India

227 factories work with FWF members

40 FWF members source in India

50 complaints

1 FWF projects

Indonesia

Indonesia’s manufacturing sector generates around a fifth of the ... more

Fair Wear is active in Indonesia

27 factories work with FWF members

12 FWF members source in Indonesia

2 complaints

1 FWF projects

Ireland

more

Fair Wear is not active in Ireland

2 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Ireland

Israel

more

Fair Wear is not active in Israel

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Israel

Italy

ITALY While considered a low risk country, in the past few years w... more

Fair Wear is not active in Italy

162 factories work with FWF members

23 FWF members source in Italy

2 complaints

Jordan

more

Fair Wear is not active in Jordan

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Jordan

Kazakhstan

more

Fair Wear is not active in Kazakhstan

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Kazakhstan

Lao People´s Democratic Republic

more

Fair Wear is not active in Lao People´s Democratic Republic

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Lao People´s Democratic Republic

Latvia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Latvia

8 factories work with FWF members

7 FWF members source in Latvia

Lithuania

more

Fair Wear is not active in Lithuania

49 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Lithuania

Macedonia

FWF began working in Macedonia in 2003. The garment industry is a v... more

Fair Wear is active in Macedonia

33 factories work with FWF members

13 FWF members source in Macedonia

2 complaints

1 FWF projects

Madagascar

more

Fair Wear is not active in Madagascar

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Madagascar

Malaysia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Malaysia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Malaysia

Mauritius

more

Fair Wear is not active in Mauritius

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Mauritius

Moldova

more

Fair Wear is not active in Moldova

8 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Moldova

Mongolia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Mongolia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Mongolia

Morocco

more

Fair Wear is not active in Morocco

12 factories work with FWF members

8 FWF members source in Morocco

2 complaints

Myanmar

While Myanmar has demonstrated significant progress on civil and po... more

Fair Wear is active in Myanmar

16 factories work with FWF members

9 FWF members source in Myanmar

15 complaints

Nepal

more

Fair Wear is not active in Nepal

3 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Nepal

Netherlands

more

Fair Wear is not active in Netherlands

5 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Netherlands

4 complaints

New Zealand

more

Fair Wear is not active in New Zealand

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in New Zealand

Pakistan

FWF is not active in Pakistan. However, one of FWF's strategic part... more

Fair Wear is not active in Pakistan

32 factories work with FWF members

12 FWF members source in Pakistan

1 complaint

Peru

more

Fair Wear is not active in Peru

15 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Peru

Philippines

more

Fair Wear is not active in Philippines

3 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Philippines

Poland

Poland falls under FWF’s low-risk policy. This means that members... more

Fair Wear is not active in Poland

57 factories work with FWF members

25 FWF members source in Poland

Portugal

Portugal falls under FWF’s low-risk policy. This means that membe... more

Fair Wear is not active in Portugal

137 factories work with FWF members

36 FWF members source in Portugal

Republic of Korea

more

Fair Wear is not active in Republic of Korea

5 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Republic of Korea

Romania

The textile and garment industry is one of the most important secto... more

Fair Wear is active in Romania

56 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Romania

4 complaints

1 FWF projects

Russian Federation

more

Fair Wear is not active in Russian Federation

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Russian Federation

Serbia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Serbia

4 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Serbia

Slovakia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Slovakia

18 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Slovakia

Slovenia

more

Fair Wear is not active in Slovenia

5 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Slovenia

Spain

more

Fair Wear is not active in Spain

5 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Spain

Sri Lanka

more

Fair Wear is not active in Sri Lanka

7 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Sri Lanka

Sweden

more

Fair Wear is not active in Sweden

3 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Sweden

Switzerland

more

Fair Wear is not active in Switzerland

7 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Switzerland

Taiwan

more

Fair Wear is not active in Taiwan

7 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Taiwan

Thailand

more

Fair Wear is not active in Thailand

10 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Thailand

1 complaint

Tunisia

Tunisia is among the world’s leading suppliers of clothing, an in... more

Fair Wear is active in Tunisia

62 factories work with FWF members

18 FWF members source in Tunisia

9 complaints

1 FWF projects

Turkey

Turkey is the fifth biggest supplier country for FWF members. Produ... more

Fair Wear is active in Turkey

202 factories work with FWF members

44 FWF members source in Turkey

31 complaints

1 FWF projects

Uganda

more

Fair Wear is not active in Uganda

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Uganda

Ukraine

more

Fair Wear is not active in Ukraine

10 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Ukraine

1 complaint

United Arab Emirates

more

Fair Wear is not active in United Arab Emirates

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

more

Fair Wear is not active in United Kingdom

4 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in United Kingdom

United States

more

Fair Wear is not active in United States

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in United States

Vietnam

In 2016 Fair Wear Foundation has 21 member companies sourcing from ... more

Fair Wear is active in Vietnam

132 factories work with FWF members

24 FWF members source in Vietnam

14 complaints

1 FWF projects

Zimbabwe

more

Fair Wear is not active in Zimbabwe

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Zimbabwe