India

The textile and garment industry plays an important role in India’s economic growth, contributing 4% to the country’s GDP and employing about 45 million workers.

Labour conditions are characterised by high production pressure resulting in excessive, often unpaid overtime. In addition, a lack of legal employment relationships and informal employment is common; especially for seasonal and migrant workers. Unionisation in the garment sector remains low, at less than 5%; largely due to management practices that discourage workers from joining trade unions. Functioning grievance channels are lacking.

Sexual harassment of female workers remains a major challenge and generally goes unreported. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act stipulates that women should not be subjected to sexual harassment in the workplace and prescribes the creation of Internal Complaints Committees (ICC). However, most garment factories do not have (functioning) ICCs in place. Since 2013, FWF provides training through its Workplace Education Programme (WEP) focusing on the prevention of gender-based violence and the establishment of ICCs.

In addition, with the support of the EU delegation in India, FWF is currently piloting a training programme in Bangalore and Tirupur. The programme aims to further reduce economic discrimination against women in garment factories by providing training focused on improving the working relations between line supervisors and workers and supporting female workers with skills to become supervisors.

FWF has published a policy to offer guidance to its members to mitigate risks related to Sumangali-like schemes, an illegal forced labour practice observed in South India.

Minimum wages vary per state, sector and category of workers. Taking the tailoring industry as an example, daily minimum wages in Bangalore, Tirupur and Gurgaon range from 263 to 391 INR (EUR 3.4 to 5.3). Such wages provide only minimal standards of living and do not meet the monthly living wage, which amounts to a daily wage of 720 INR (EUR 9.7), according to the Asia Floor Wage. FWF audits found that minimum wages are commonly provided to permanent workers, while documents regarding contract workers are often not available for verification. In addition, overtime is commonly paid at single rate or not paid at all.

FWF has been active in India since 2003. Forty FWF members—mostly those in fashion and sportswear—source from more than 160 factories. Of these factories, 45% are located in north India, while 55% are based in south India. Significant clusters for factories supplying FWF members include Tamil Nadu (mainly Tirupur) as well as Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) area.

In India, FWF works with a number of local partners (currently SAVE, Cividep and MARG), a country representative, as well as three local audit teams. Complaint hotlines are operated in five languages; Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, Bangla and English.

Fair Wear Foundation and its partners FNV Mondiaal and CNV Internationaal have been selected by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs for a five year Strategic partnership starting in 2016 as part of its “Dialogue and Dissent” policy framework. The primary goal of this initiative is to improve the lobbying and advocacy capacity of trade unions and labour related NGOs by enhancing their understanding of international RMG supply chains, access to critical information and know-how. This programme further defines FWF’s activities in India for the coming 5 years, focusing on the areas of Living Wages, Social Dialogue and Gender Based Violence in the textile industry.

For questions about FWF’s work in India, please contact Lisa Süss.

Indicators

  • FWF active since: 2003
  • Complaints handler: yes
  • Audit teams: 2
  • FWF affiliates sourcing: 41
  • Number of suppliers: 341
  • Human development rank: 130
  • Minimum wage: 2990 INR = 48,6 US$
  • GDP per capita/year (PPP US$): 5,050
  • Income equality value (Gini): 33,6
  • Population below $1.25/day: 32,7
  • Global gender gap index: 108
  • Child labour (5-14 years): 12%
  • Trade union situation

Resources

Resources related to India

India Country Study 2016

India is, together with Bangladesh, China and Turkey, one of FWF’s date: 26/09/2016Read more

Study of wage accord between Tirupur Exporters and Trade Unions

  Study of wage accord between Tirupur Exporters and Trade date: 21/12/2011Read more

India Country Plan 2015

Country plan 2015 date: 21/12/2011Read more

FWF Guidance for Members on Sumangali 2015

FWF Guidance for Members on Sumangali 2015 The Sumangali Scheme, a date: 21/12/2011Read more

Members in India

Projects

Projects in India

Workplace Education Programme

FWF members aim for more than participating in auditing. FWF’s Workplace Education Programme (WEP) provides short, targeted onsite training for managers, supervisors and workers. The training aims to raise awareness about the various labour standards and effective methods for communicating about problems and resolving disputes. Managers, supervisors and workers also learn about FWF’s complaints mechanism.

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FWF around the world

Most of FWF's work is focused on four priority countries: Bangladesh, China, India and Turkey. Around 80% of FWF member production comes from these four countries.

FWF is active in country

FWF member brand sources in country

complaints in country

FWF projects in country

Albania

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Fair Wear is not active in Albania

4 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Albania

Algeria

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Fair Wear is not active in Algeria

1 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Algeria

Argentina

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Fair Wear is not active in Argentina

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Argentina

Austria

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Fair Wear is not active in Austria

8 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Austria

Bangladesh

FWF's 2014 country plan for Bangladesh can be downloaded here. The ... more

Fair Wear is active in Bangladesh

205 factories work with FWF members

17 FWF members source in Bangladesh

29 complaints

1 FWF projects

Belarus

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Fair Wear is not active in Belarus

2 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Belarus

Belgium

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Fair Wear is not active in Belgium

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Belgium

Bolivia

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Fair Wear is not active in Bolivia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Fair Wear is not active in Bosnia and Herzegovina

10 factories work with FWF members

7 FWF members source in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

The predominant part of the apparel producing companies in Bulgaria... more

Fair Wear is active in Bulgaria

30 factories work with FWF members

13 FWF members source in Bulgaria

1 complaints

1 FWF projects

Cambodia

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Fair Wear is not active in Cambodia

11 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Cambodia

China

China is, still, the largest exporter of garment products. 2014 wit... more

Fair Wear is active in China

726 factories work with FWF members

56 FWF members source in China

52 complaints

2 FWF projects

Croatia

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Fair Wear is not active in Croatia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Croatia

Czech Republic

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Fair Wear is not active in Czech Republic

14 factories work with FWF members

7 FWF members source in Czech Republic

Egypt

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Fair Wear is not active in Egypt

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Egypt

Estonia

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Fair Wear is not active in Estonia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Estonia

Ethiopia

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Fair Wear is not active in Ethiopia

1 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Ethiopia

Fiji

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Fair Wear is not active in Fiji

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Fiji

France

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Fair Wear is not active in France

20 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in France

Germany

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Fair Wear is not active in Germany

50 factories work with FWF members

17 FWF members source in Germany

1 complaints

Greece

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Fair Wear is not active in Greece

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Greece

Hong Kong

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Fair Wear is not active in Hong Kong

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Hong Kong

Hungary

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Fair Wear is not active in Hungary

21 factories work with FWF members

13 FWF members source in Hungary

India

The textile and garment industry plays an important role in India... more

Fair Wear is active in India

206 factories work with FWF members

36 FWF members source in India

33 complaints

1 FWF projects

Indonesia

Indonesia’s manufacturing sector generates around a fifth of the ... more

Fair Wear is active in Indonesia

24 factories work with FWF members

10 FWF members source in Indonesia

1 complaints

1 FWF projects

Israel

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Fair Wear is not active in Israel

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Israel

Italy

ITALY While considered a low risk country, in the past few years w... more

Fair Wear is not active in Italy

150 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Italy

2 complaints

Jamaica

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Fair Wear is not active in Jamaica

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Jamaica

1 complaints

Jordan

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Fair Wear is not active in Jordan

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Jordan

Lao People´s Democratic Republic

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Fair Wear is not active in Lao People´s Democratic Republic

6 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Lao People´s Democratic Republic

Latvia

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Fair Wear is not active in Latvia

7 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Latvia

Lithuania

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Fair Wear is not active in Lithuania

52 factories work with FWF members

15 FWF members source in Lithuania

Macedonia

FWF began working in Macedonia in 2003. The garment industry is a v... more

Fair Wear is active in Macedonia

30 factories work with FWF members

10 FWF members source in Macedonia

2 complaints

1 FWF projects

Madagascar

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Fair Wear is not active in Madagascar

2 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Madagascar

Malaysia

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Fair Wear is not active in Malaysia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Malaysia

Moldova

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Fair Wear is not active in Moldova

7 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Moldova

Mongolia

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Fair Wear is not active in Mongolia

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Mongolia

Morocco

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Fair Wear is not active in Morocco

11 factories work with FWF members

10 FWF members source in Morocco

1 complaints

Myanmar

While Myanmar has demonstrated significant progress on civil and po... more

Fair Wear is active in Myanmar

18 factories work with FWF members

11 FWF members source in Myanmar

5 complaints

1 FWF projects

Nepal

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Fair Wear is not active in Nepal

2 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Nepal

Netherlands

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Fair Wear is not active in Netherlands

15 factories work with FWF members

10 FWF members source in Netherlands

2 complaints

New Zealand

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Fair Wear is not active in New Zealand

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in New Zealand

Pakistan

FWF is not active in Pakistan. However, one of FWF's strategic part... more

Fair Wear is not active in Pakistan

32 factories work with FWF members

12 FWF members source in Pakistan

1 complaints

Peru

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Fair Wear is not active in Peru

15 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Peru

Philippines

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Fair Wear is not active in Philippines

1 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in Philippines

Poland

Poland falls under FWF’s low-risk policy. This means that members... more

Fair Wear is not active in Poland

50 factories work with FWF members

23 FWF members source in Poland

Portugal

Portugal falls under FWF’s low-risk policy. This means that membe... more

Fair Wear is not active in Portugal

138 factories work with FWF members

34 FWF members source in Portugal

Republic of Korea

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Fair Wear is not active in Republic of Korea

5 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Republic of Korea

Romania

The textile and garment industry is one of the most important secto... more

Fair Wear is active in Romania

55 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Romania

2 complaints

1 FWF projects

Russian Federation

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Fair Wear is not active in Russian Federation

1 factories work with FWF members

1 FWF members source in Russian Federation

Serbia

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Fair Wear is not active in Serbia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Serbia

Slovakia

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Fair Wear is not active in Slovakia

18 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Slovakia

Slovenia

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Fair Wear is not active in Slovenia

4 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in Slovenia

Spain

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Fair Wear is not active in Spain

8 factories work with FWF members

6 FWF members source in Spain

Sri Lanka

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Fair Wear is not active in Sri Lanka

4 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Sri Lanka

Sweden

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Fair Wear is not active in Sweden

5 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in Sweden

Switzerland

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Fair Wear is not active in Switzerland

8 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Switzerland

Taiwan

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Fair Wear is not active in Taiwan

4 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Taiwan

Thailand

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Fair Wear is not active in Thailand

10 factories work with FWF members

5 FWF members source in Thailand

1 complaints

Tunisia

Tunisia is among the world’s leading suppliers of clothing, an in... more

Fair Wear is active in Tunisia

56 factories work with FWF members

14 FWF members source in Tunisia

5 complaints

1 FWF projects

Turkey

Turkey is the fifth biggest supplier country for FWF members. Produ... more

Fair Wear is active in Turkey

155 factories work with FWF members

38 FWF members source in Turkey

30 complaints

1 FWF projects

Ukraine

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Fair Wear is not active in Ukraine

9 factories work with FWF members

7 FWF members source in Ukraine

1 complaints

United Arab Emirates

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Fair Wear is not active in United Arab Emirates

3 factories work with FWF members

3 FWF members source in United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

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Fair Wear is not active in United Kingdom

4 factories work with FWF members

4 FWF members source in United Kingdom

United States

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Fair Wear is not active in United States

3 factories work with FWF members

2 FWF members source in United States

Vietnam

Garment and textile is the second biggest exporting industry in Vie... more

Fair Wear is active in Vietnam

107 factories work with FWF members

20 FWF members source in Vietnam

7 complaints

1 FWF projects